PRE #8: “Calories In, Calories Out is Stupid” – Quack Asylum

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

One passionately debated concept is that of “calories-in, calories-out” (CICO). This is colloquial phrasing for how energy balance relates to bodily energy stores. And this gets translated as shorthand for indicating how energy balance influences gain/loss of body mass.

When looking at some of the commentary related to CICO, there are two opposing positions that are both incorrect. On one hand you have people who clearly focus too heavily on calories alone. But on the other you have people claiming that “CICO is wrong” and that looking at energy balance as the main driver of changes in body mass is misguided.

In this episode, we focus in on the latter of those positions, i.e. the claim that “CICO is a myth”, or “calories don’t matter” or “fat loss has nothing to do with CICO” or several other similar statements that we’ll look at one by one.

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#451: Potassium & Blood Pressure: Influence of Sex & Sodium

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It has been consistently shown in research that elevated dietary sodium consumption is associated with high blood pressure and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, low levels of dietary potassium intake are associated with these same risks. However, there is some debate on how to characterize these relationships.

In a study published in European Heart Journal in July 2022, using data from the EPIC-Norfolk study, researchers attempted to answer whether the associations between potassium and both blood pressure and cardiovascular disease: 1) differ between men and women? and 2) depend on daily sodium intake.

In this episode Dr. Alan Flanagan and Danny Lennon discuss the details of this study and then link it to the overall evidence base and what this may mean for potassium (and sodium) intake considerations.

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#450: Megan Rossi, PhD, RD – Diet For a Healthy Gut: Diversity, Fiber Types & Gut Health Pseudoscience

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With the advances in understanding the importance of the gut (including its bacterial contents) for human health, much interest and attention has been placed on how to eat to promote positive ‘gut health’. This has led to many exciting research questions and labs doing fascinating work.

However, on the opposite side, it has led to a spike in opportunistic quacks to jump on the wave of enthusiasm and promote diets, supplements, testing kits and products that don’t reflect the current evidence base.

So what do we actually know? What aspects of diet should we focus on to improve gut health? For those with gut symptoms (bloating, pain, irritable bowel, etc.) is it possible to include more vegetables and fiber without the pain?

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#448: Prof. Norman Temple – Can Science Answer Diet-Health Questions?

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon4 Comments

While we’ve never known more about diet and health, there remain many unanswered questions in nutrition science. However, there is often disagreements on how best to answer these questions, particularly in relation to informing practical diet advise that meaningfully improves health.

Prof. Norman Temple is one academic who has written on a number of these issues. One issue he highlights is the large discrepency in the practical value we have attained from cohort studies and RCTs, relative to mechanistic research. Another is the limitations of RCTs for nutrition-specific research questions.

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#446: How Climate Change Impacts Nutrient Status

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Climate change has the potential to negatively impact the nutrient value of plants, soil organisms, food stuffs, via a variety of ways. Climate change puts food supplies at risk. Floods, droughts, more intense hurricanes, heatwaves and wildfires can drive down crop yields, destroy livestock, and interfere with the transport of food. And rising carbon dioxide levels from human activity can make staple crops like rice and wheat less nutritious.

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#444: Folate – Intake, Genetics & Health Outcomes

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Folate (also known as viatmin B9) actually relates to a collection of folates; both natural dietary folates and synthetic forms, primarily folic acid. This folate/folic acid that is consumed via the diet or supplementation is a precursor for the formation of tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is a carbon donor and acts a cofactor for a number of enzymes that play important roles in several processes. In this episode, Alan and Danny discuss the role of folate in the methlyation cycle, the impact of folate insufficiency/deficiency, genetics variatnts of the MTHFR gene (and other genes) that impact folate metabolism, and the impact of folate on health outcomes; including heart disease, birth defects, cancer, and brain health & cognition.

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#443: Kevin Klatt, PhD, RD – Can Choline Help Improve DHA Status?

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A recently published study by Klatt and colleagues examined the impact of choline supplementation alongside DHA supplementation, versus DHA supplementation alone, on DHA status in pregnancy. It is known that DHA is a critical nutrient at this time for healthy development of the child. And through a number of mechanisms discussed later, it has been hypothesized that choline could lead to greater DHA status.

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#442: Are Vegetables Detrimental to Health?

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In this episode we address the idea that you shouldn’t eat vegetables, or that they aren’t beneficial. We will specifically look at a number of claims that relate to: 1) The claim that vegetables aren’t beneficial for health, or that there is no health benefit to high vegetable intake; 2) The claim that vegetables are actually detrimental to health, and their removal improves health.

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#441: Julie Abayomi, PhD, RD – Diet During Pregnancy

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In this episode, researcher and dietitian Dr. Julie Abayomi discusses important nutrients in pregnancy (e.g. iodine, DHA, and folic acid), as well as potentially problematic nutrients/foods (e.g. high-mercury fish and caffeine). In addition, she discusses the current debates about weight gain/loss during pregnancy, as well as what supports are needed for health professionals supporting pregnant women.

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#440: Are Dietary Guidelines Trying To Kill Us?

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

It has become common rhetoric for those promoting various types of diets to suggest that dietary guidelines published by government departments are at best, unhealthy, or at worst, causative in driving obesity and chronic disease in the population.

Often the claims is that following these guidelines actually harms health, rather than promote it. And the guidelines are simply a result of industry forces, long-standing bias, and shoddy science.

But do these claims hold up to scrutiny?

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Quack Asylum: Detoxification Protocols

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There have been many claims made about the benefits of a detoxification “protocol” or “plan”, based on specific dietary and supplemental regimens. Many of the arguments propose that many things we come into contact with are toxins and they can accumulate and compound in effect over time, causing a range of issues. Therefore, by removing these toxins (via a “detoxification protocol”), we can have better health.

And indeed it is well known that there are a large number of toxins in the environment, many of which can potentially be deleterious to health. And it also known that many nutrients are involed in processes of the body’s detoxification pathways.

However, is there any evidence that a detoxification diet, plan or “protocol” improves health? Is there any reason to suggest targeting certain nutrients or supplements leads to “better detoxification”? And do we need to avoid non-organic food, toothpaste and non-stick frying plans in avoid to avoid these toxins?

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#439: Prof. David Jenkins – Lipid-Lowering Diets

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Dr. David Jenkins and collegegues put forward the idea of a “portfolio” of specific nutrients/foods that could lower LDL-C further than the typical dietary changes. This became known as the Portfolio Diet. The four primary pillars of this portfolio diet are: soy protein, viscous fibers, nuts, and plant sterols.

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#438: Diet, Brain Health & Cognitive Function

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Some cognitive decline is normal with age. However, more significant cognitive decline is primarily due to disease-induced dementias (such as Alzheimer’s Disease). It also results from neurodegenerative disorders and chronic, prolonged degeneration of our neuronal pathways and functions.

Drug discovery for dementias have been largely unsuccessful, leaving no good treatments for this collection of diseases. This had led to research examining areas that may aid in preventing (or more accurately, slowing) cognitive decline.

In this episode the Sigma team look at the published data on a variety of nutrients, foods and dietary patterns, including: vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, caffeine, flavanoids, coffee and green leafy vegetables.

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#437: GMOs & Genetic Engineering: Harmless or Health-Hazard?

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There has been much concern voiced over the years about the potential harms to both human health and the environment of genetically-modified (or more accurately, genetically-engineered) crops. tolerance, and even enhanced nutritional content. But are these advantages possible without harm? In this episode, Alan and Danny discuss the current evidence on genetically engineered crops (or GMOs) and their effect on human health, biodiversity, and the economy.

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#436: Charlene Van Buiten, PhD – Coeliac Disease & the Search for Novel Therapies

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Coeliac disease treatment requires adherence to a gluten-free diet for life. Therefore there is much research underway to develop alternative treatment options that may help these patients. One novel antigen-focused therapy that has been hypothesised is the use of plant bioactives.

Specifially, in vitro work by Dr. Charlene Van Buiten has looked as whether there is a mechanism by which polyphenols from green tea could be of benefit. Her work shows that these polyphenols can mitigate gliadin-mediated inflammation and intestinal permeability in vitro.

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Quack Asylum: “Fish is Bad For You”

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While dietary guidelines universally include fish as a food group that can be consumed regularly in a healthy dietary pattern, there are some potential risks of fish consumption that get raised. Some have some legitimacy, for example the frequency of consumption of high-mercury fish. However, other claims can go to extremes (“eating fish is bad for you”) that are based in ideology rather than evidence.

In this Quack Asylum episode, we use a video made by a medical doctor as an example of where quackery can raise its head on this topic. Specifically, there are four claims made in the video that we investigate and see if there is any basis to them.

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#434: Is a Vegan Diet Really Best for Diabetes?

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

Many different diets have been put forward as solutions that treat type 2 diabetes. Some will claim the diet “reverses” diabetes, some say it puts it into “remission”, while others more conservatively recommend a diet to manage diabetes symptoms in a healthy way.

There has been some debate on the use of terms like reversal, cure or resolution. And recently more clarity has been found in defining each.

One of the diets that has been recommended by some for the purposes of “reversing” or treating diabetes is a low-fat, whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet. Specifically, there is a claim that it is superior to other diets in treating diabetes. Some of these claims relate to popular online diet & lifestyle programs that use such a diet. While there is also a number of studies that are commonly cited in support of the claims.

In this episode, we evaluate these claims by looking at the published research in this area, across epidemiology, human intervention trials and mechanistic rationale. We also ponder what it means for something to be the “best” diet to treat a chronic disease.

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#432: Bill Harris, PhD – Omega-3 Fatty Acids & Health

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

Omega-3 fatty acids have long been associated with various health outcomes. A type of omega-3 called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is found in various plant foods such as flax seeds or chia seeds. Other omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found typically in marine food sources such as oily fish (e.g. salmon, mackerel) and algae. And while higher intakes of such foods have shown benefit, there has been some confusion over the benefit of such nutrients due to some large omega-3 supplementation trials reporting null findings.

So what should we make of the current evidence base? Does supplementation lead to heart disease risk reduction or not? Do we need direct sources of EPA and DHA in the diet? Does ALA have unique benefits? What is an omega-3 index and why is it important?

In this episode, fatty acid expert Dr. Bill Harris dives into each of these questions and clarifies what the current evidence tells us about the effect of these fatty acids on our health.

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#431: Artificial Sweeteners – Health Impacts and ‘Safe’ Levels

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There is now widespread use of various “artificial sweeteners” in foods and beverages. Most commonly non-nutritive sweeteners are used to sweeten a products, whilst having less sugar and calories than a traditionally sugar-sweetened version of that product. For example, diet drinks (e.g. diet soda) are most commonly associated with artificial sweeteners. However, they are also in a wide variety of food products and supplements.
For a long-time there has been skepticism and alarm raised about their potential health effects. From claims of them increasing our food intake, all the way to causing cancer. And food safety authorities have conducted rigorous examinations of the safety data on each of these compounds.
In this episode, the Sigma team discuss the initial research that raised alarm bells, the current process of safety evaluation for non-nutritive sweeteners, the amounts they are consumed in, and the studies published thus far examining their health impacts.

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Quack Asylum: “Don’t Eat Vegetables”

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

In this episode we address the idea that you shouldn’t eat vegetables, or that they aren’t beneficial. We will specifically look at a number of claims that relate to: 1) The claim that vegetables aren’t beneficial for health, or that there is no health benefit to high vegetable intake; 2) The claim that vegetables are actually detrimental to health, and their removal improves health.

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#430: Soy – Yes, No, Maybe?

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The popularity of soy foods and soy-based products has been increasing in recent times. This has been particularly the case as a dairy alternative, with people switching to using soy ‘milk’ and soy-based yogurts and cheese. Additionally, soy has become popular as a meat alternative in a variety of dishes for those looking to reduce meat intake. Soy foods such as tofu can be used in recipes in place of meat, and soy-based ‘meat alternatives’ that are vegetarian and vegan friendly have been developed.
With this increased prevalence, there has been some debate about the health effects of consuming soy foods and products. On one side, there have potential benefits highlighted of inclusion of soy in the diet. It contains phytoestrogens, which may have beneficial effects. Additionally, it is low in saturated fat, and so is potentially beneficial when used in place of saturated fat-rich foods. However, some have claimed that the phytoestrogens (isoflavones specifically) in soy can be a cause for concern due to the ability of these compounds to mimic the effects of the hormone oestrogen. One common claim is that high soy intake is detrimental for men particularly, as it is “feminizing”; causing gynecomastia, loss of libido and erectile dysfunction.
So what is the truth? Is soy a health food? A harmful endocrine disruptor? Or simply neutral? In this episode we dive into the research and look at the evidence to date tells us about these questions. We consider two big health outcomes in particular; cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. And then final discuss what this means practically for our dietary choices.

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#429: Kevin Hall, PhD & Stephan Guyenet, PhD – Carbohydrate-Insulin Model vs. Energy Balance Model

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The pathogenesis of obesity is clearly complex. And the need to have a comprehensive model to explain this pathogenesis is important. One such model, termed the Energy Balance Model, has largely been the consensus paradigm of obesity scientists to this point. However, there are others who propose that this is not the correct model of obesity, but rather that obesity pathogenesis can be better explained by a model called the Carbohydrate-Insulin Model (CIM) of obesity.

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#428: Food Environments

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Clearly the food choices one makes over time directly impacts health. However, choices are not made in a vacuum; that is, they are not always concious decisions made for rational reasons based on free will. Rather, the choices we make about food are shaped by the contexts within which they are made. The term “food environment” is used to describe the physical, economic, political and socio-cultural contexts in which choices are made about acquiring, preparing and consuming food.

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#427: Jacob Schepis – Evidence-Based Coaching: Desirable Goal or Unattainable Burden for Fitness Professionals?

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It’s never been more popular to be seen as “evidence-based” as a fitness professional. And indeed evidence-based practice has been seen as the best way to arrive at coaching decisions. But is “evidence-based practice” actually what fitness professionals are doing? Is it even attainable for most coaches? Does it create a burden on them? Does it even matter if you’re actually reading reserach or not? What makes for a competent personal trainer? In this episode, Jacob Schepis is on the show to discuss all these questions and to discuss how he feels evidence-based practice fits within a framework of coaching and coach development.

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#425: Prof. Anna Krylov – When Ideology Hurts Scientific Discourse

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon4 Comments

Prof. Anna Krylov is a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Southern California (USC), working in the field of theoretical and computational quantum chemistry.

Krylov is active in the promotion of gender equality in STEM fields.

In June 2021 she published a paper, “The Peril of Politicizing Science,” has received over 75,000 views (as of February 2022) and is the all-time highest-ranked article in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (impact factor of 6.5).

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#424: Is Low Cholesterol Bad For You?!

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

In this episode Alan and Danny discuss the role of cholesterol in the body and claims that are made suggesting low levels of blood cholesterol are harmful to health. Starting with the premise that cholesterol is an important molecule in the body and plays a role in many processes, the guys discuss two related claims: 1) we should avoid low cholesterol levels as it can harm our health, and 2) elevated levels of cholesterol may actually be protective against disease or mortality.
The episode also critiques claims about cholesterol being “conditionally essential” and that low LDL-C/ApoB increases risk of mortality, cancer and infection.

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#423: Zoya Huschtscha, PhD – Understanding Sarcopenia & Potential Interventions

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Zoya Huschtscha, PhD is a researcher and assistant lecturer at Monash University (Australia), in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics. She completed her PhD at the same institution, where her research focused on interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia; i.e. the loss of muscle function and mass, typically with age. Zoya also has a Masters of Dietetics. In addition to her academic work, she works in private practice as a sports dietitian.

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#422: Psychobiotics – Can Probiotics Improve Mood-related Disorders?

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In this episode the Sigma team discuss the research looking at ‘psychobiotics’; i.e. probiotics that have health impacts on those with pyschiatric disorders or symptoms. They discuss the origins of the research, the gut-brain axis, mechanisms by which gut microbiota could impact mood, and then the human trials to date that have examined probiotics’ effects on mood, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder and other outcomes.

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#421: Brendon Stubbs, PhD – The Research on Depression & Physical Activity

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Dr. Brendon Stubbs, PhD, is a Senior Clinical Lecturer and researcher at King’s College London, conducting research in physical activity & mental health, the mind-body interface, and meta-research. He has published over 600 academic papers in several leading journals across multiple scientific fields.
Dr. Stubbs is also a clinical physiotherapist, being Head of Physiotherapy at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. He has a MSc in Neurological Rehabilitation & PhD in Pain Medicine & Rehabilitation.
He has informed policy guidelines in the UK, Europe and the World Health Organization.

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#419: Nathan Bryan, PhD – Role of Nitric Oxide in Human Health

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon4 Comments

Dr. Nathan Bryan, PhD is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. Bryan has been involved in nitric oxide research for the past 18 years and has made many seminal discoveries in the field. He was the first to demonstrate and discover an endocrine function of nitric oxide via the formation of S-nitrosoglutathione and inorganic nitrite.

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#418: Should We Consume a Direct Source of DHA?

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon7 Comments

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the debate around whether a direct source of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid DHA should be recommended. Many people do not consume the marine foods (primarily fatty fish) that contain DHA, and higher DHA intakes, DHA status, and omega-3 indices are predictive of certain health outcomes. But the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) can be consumed from plant sources. So do those who do not consume direct sources of DHA have lower DHA status? Does this matter? And if so, then what pragmatic conclusions can we come to? All of this is covered in this episode.

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#417: Austin Baraki, MD – What Do Nutrient Blood Tests Actually Tell Us?: Understanding Biomarkers

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Dr. Austin Baraki joins Danny and Alan to critically evaluate the assumption that blood levels of a nutrient directly tell us about overall nutritional status. With many people getting blood tests done outside of clinical settings, there is significant risk of misinterpretation of what these measures mean. In this episode we discuss measures of calcium, sodium, vitamin D and others as examples of where misinterpretation and misunderstanding can happen.

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#416: David Nunan, PhD – Evidence-Informed Health Care: Evidence-based Medicine 2.0

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Dr. David Nunan, PhD is a Lecturer and Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine at the University of Oxford. There, he is the Director of the Postgraduate Certificate in ‘Teaching Evidence-Based Health Care’ and the lead tutor for the internationally-renowned ‘Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine’ course.

He is a principal investigator with research interests in prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related conditions, improving the understanding and use of research evidence, and meta-epidemiology (research on research). David has experience in a breadth of methodologies including diagnostic studies, statistical analysis, qualitative research and clinical trials.

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#413: Anthony Fardet, PhD – Nutritional Reductionism, the Food Matrix & Impact of Processing

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Anthony Fardet, PhD is a nutrition science researcher in the Human Nutrition Unit at Université Clermont Auvergne, France.

His work has focused on a number of related areas; the consequences of the reductionist and holistic approaches applied to nutrition research, the relevance of a new classification of foods based on their degree of processing, and the role of the complex structure of the food in its health potential (“matrix effect”).

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#411: Bone Health & Nutrition

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon7 Comments

In this episode Alan and Danny discuss the role of nutrition in bone health. They cover the importance of bone health, bone disorders such as osteoporosis, how nutrients play a role in bone remodelling, and the evidence of dietary and supplementation trials on bone health outcomes.

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#408: Mario Kratz, PhD – Is Eating Full-fat Dairy, Low-fat Dairy, or No Dairy Better for Cardiometabolic Health?

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Dr. Mario Kratz is a clinical researcher in the areas of nutrition, obesity, and cardiometabolic disease, with more than 20 years of experience running clinical studies in a variety of populations. He is a former research associate professor at the University of Washington in the departments of Medicine and Epidemiology. And is also formerly an Associate Professor at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Washington state.

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#406: Polyphenols & Cognitive Health

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In this episode we discuss the potential impact of dietary polyphenols on cognitive health; including cogitnitve funciton, memory, and risk of dementia and Alzeimher’s. We talk about some potential mechanisms, cohort studies, and then direct controlled trials.

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#405: Adrian Brown, PhD – Dietary Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes

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Dr Adrian Brown is a NIHR Lecturer and Research Fellow in the Centre of Obesity Research at University College London. He is also a senior Specialist Weight Management and Bariatric dietitian with over 15 years of clinical experience and a PhD in Medicine from Imperial College London. His research interests centre around obesity, type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery, weight stigma and the use of formula-based diets in different patient populations. He is an Honorary Academic for Public Health England Obesity and Healthy Weight Team, on the strategic council for APPG on Obesity and is on the scientific council of the British Nutrition Foundation.

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#404: Prof. Marion Hetherington – Psychology and Development of Food Preference & Eating Behaviour

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Prof. Marion Hetherington is Professor of Biopsychology at University of Leeds, where her research is focused on the psychology of appetite across the lifespan. She has previously been at Johns Hopkins, the NIH, the University of Dundee, University of Liverpool and Glasgow Caledonian University, before taking up her role in Leeds in 2008, where she works within the Human Appetite Research Unit.

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#403 Prof. David Jacobs – Food Synergy & The Top-Down Approach to Nutrition Research

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Prof. David Jacobs, PhD is Professor of Public Health, in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, at the University of Minnesota. He has published highly inflential work in nutritional epidemiology and health epidemiolgy for decades. A number of his papers have brought up crucially important ideas about how to do good nutrition science. Specifically, he has talked about think of whole diet or foods as the exposure of interest, rather than individual nutrients. Essentially warning against the pitfalls of applying a biomedical lens to nutrition research.

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#402: Prof. Leanne Redman – Pregnancy, Maternal Diet & Intergenerational Transmission of Obesity

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon3 Comments

Prof. Leanne Redman is a Professor of Reproductive Endocrinology & Women’s Health, based at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center. As the director of the Reproductive Endocrinology and Women’s Health Laboratory, she is focused on understanding the intergenerational transmission of obesity. She has published on maternal diet, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes, amoung other issues.

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#398: Carole Hooven, PhD – Testosterone: Behavioural Endocrinology & Sex Differences

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Carole Hooven, PhD, is lecturer and codirector of undergraduate studies in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. She earned her PhD at Harvard, studying behavioral endocrinology and evolution of sex differences in humans (physiology, behavior and cognition). She has recently written a book on how testosterone influences behaviour and explains many sex differences. The book is titled ‘T: The Story of Testosterone, the Hormone that Dominates and Divides Us’.

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#395: Prof. Carel Le Roux – Current Thinking in Obesity Treatment

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

Professor le Roux is an expert in metabolic medicine and is currently a Professor of Experimental Pathology, University College Dublin. He is recognised as a world leader in metabolism and obesity. Professor le Roux’s clinical focus is in the management of Type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk and other metabolic disorders. Professor Carel le Roux has been published extensively and currently holds a number of editorial roles for journals in his field including, Clinical Obesity and Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

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#394: Gar Benn – Nutrition Coaching Q&A

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Gar Benn is the Head of Coaching at Sigma Nutrition, where he works with nutrition coaching clients and oversees the coaching services. He is the owner of CityGym Limerick, a powerlifting-centric gym in Ireland. And he is also the co-founder of the European Powerlifting Confernce and Titan Ireland.

Gar is a qualifed nutrition coach and has completed courses in Motivational Interviewing and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT).

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#393: Vitamin D: Does Supplementation Actually Improve Health?

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Vitamin D status is linked to a variety of health outcomes, and avoiding or correcting deficiency is important. However, does supplementing with vitamin D actually benefit most people? Is there evidence for supplementation improving health outcomes like mortality, cancer risk, depression or other outcomes? In this episode Danny and Alan look at intervention trials of vitamin D supplementation.

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#392: Clare Pettinger, PhD, RD – Environmentally Sustainable Diets & Food Access

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Dr. Clare Pettinger is a Registered Dietitian, Public Health Nutritionist and experienced educator. Based at the Universtity of Plymouth, UK, Dr. Pettinger is actively engaged in community-focussed research around food systems, poverty and social justice. She is an enthusiastic ‘sustainability advocate’ involved in promoting environmentally sustainable diets for nutrition professionals and Allied Health Professioinals.

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#384: Research Review: The Interference Effect & Concurrent Training

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationGreg Nuckols Greg Nuckols is the founder of StrongerByScience.com, a website that provides comprehensive information about how to get stronger and more jacked. Greg, along with Eric Helms, Eric Trexler and Mike Zourdos, creates the monthly research review MASS (Monthly Applications in Strength Sports), which breaks down some of the recent research carried out that is relevant to strength athletes, bodybuilders and powerlifters. Mike Zourdos, PhD Dr. Mike Zourdos, Ph.D is an Associate Professor in Exercise Science at Florida Atlantic University with a specialization in strength and conditioning and skeletal muscle physiology.In this episode we …

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#382: Andy Morgan – Planning Phases of Body Composition Change

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationAndy Morgan Andy Morgan is the founder of RippedBody.com and an online coach. He co-authored the Muscle & Strength Pyramids books along with Dr. Eric Helms and Andrea Valdez. He has published a host of excellent nutrition and training resources in the form of ebooks, articles and podcasts, which can be found on the Ripped Body website. He recently released the third edition of the Diet Adjustments Manual.In this episode we discuss: Constantly refining content and coaching practices Assessing/screening if someone is ready for a diet Setting expectations Periodization of cutting, gaining and maintenance Weight …

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#381: Prof. Chris Packard – LDL Cholesterol, ApoB & Atherosclerosis

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon5 Comments

Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationProfessor Chris Packard Prof. Chris Packard holds an Honorary Professorship of Vascular Biochemistry at the University of Glasgow. Over his career, Professor Packard has focussed on two aspects of atherosclerosis research, lipoprotein metabolism and how it is affected by diets and drugs, and large-scale clinical trials of lipid lowering agents. He is acknowledged as one of the leading researchers in the world in this field. Prof Packard has published widely on the kinetics of apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A metabolism. Key contributions include evaluation of the role of the LDL receptor in vivo, the discovery of …

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#380: Prof. Barry Popkin – The Nutrition Transition & Using Policy Actions to Create Healthier Diets

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationProf. Barry Popkin, PhD Prof. Barry Popkin is the W.R. Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor of Nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is a nutrition and obesity researcher at the Carolina Population Center and is the director of the Interdisciplinary Center for Obesity at UNC. He developed the concept of the Nutrition Transition, the study of the dynamic shifts in dietary intake and physical activity patterns and trends around obesity and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Prof. Popkin is involved now in work on program and policy design at the national …

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#379: Obesity & Chronic Disease Risk with Dr. Spencer Nadolsky

In Podcasts by Danny Lennon2 Comments

Guest InformationSpencer Nadolsky, DO Dr. Spencer Nadolsky is a board-certified obesity specialist, lipidologist, and family physician. Dr. Spencer uses lifestyle as medicine to treat and prevent chronic disease via telemedicine. He speaks all around the world about weight loss and health and is also the author of The Fat Loss Prescription and The Natural Way to Beat Diabetes.In this episode we discuss: BMI: strengths and limitations Adipose tissue type and relevance to risk Central/visceral adiposity has a different risk profile Hypertrophic vs. hyperplastic adipocytes Endocrine and inflammatory effects of different adipose tissue depots ‘Metabolically Healthy Obesity’ Weight bias and stigma Obesity …

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#377: Herman Pontzer, PhD – Metabolism, Mitochondria & Evolutionary Biology

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationHerman Pontzer,PhD Herman Pontzer, PhD is an Associate Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at Duke University and Associate Research Professor of Global Health at the Duke Global Health Institute. He is an internationally recognized researcher in human energetics and evolution. Over two decades of research in the field and laboratory, Dr. Pontzer has conducted pathbreaking studies across a range of settings, including fieldwork with Hadza hunter-gatherers in northern Tanzania, fieldwork on chimpanzee ecology in the rainforests of Uganda, and metabolic measurements of great apes in zoos and sanctuaries around the globe. Dr. Pontzer’s work has been …

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#376: Kevin Hall, PhD – Plant-based Diet vs. Ketogenic Diet: Impact on Calorie Intake

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationKevin Hall, PhD Dr. Kevin Hall, PhD is Senior Chief of the Integrative Physiology Section of the Laboratory of Biological Modeling at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). His laboratory investigates how metabolism and the brain adapt in response to a variety of interventions to diet and physical activity. They carry out studies to better understand the complex mechanisms regulating macronutrient metabolism, body composition, and energy expenditure. Recently Dr. Hall was lead author on a study titled ‘Effect of a plant-based, low-fat diet versus an animal-based, ketogenic diet on ad …

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#374: How to Plan a Fighter’s Diet

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsEpisode InformationIn this episode Danny becomes the interviewee, as he is interviewed by sports dietitian and owner of The Fight Dietitian, Jordan Sullivan RD. Jordan oversees the diet of several UFC athletes, including champions Israel Adesanya and Alexander Volkanovski. Danny and Jordan have an in-depth chat about all aspects of nutrition and weight cutting for combat sport athletes, including the concept of the “52 week fight camp” and Danny’s five-phase model of combat sport nutrition. This discussion first appeared on the Fight Science Podcast. Thanks to Jordan Sullivan for allowing its reproduction here.Links & Resources Sigma …

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#373: Alcohol & Health: Is Zero Better Than Some?

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsToday’s Topic in Focus:  [03:40] In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the health impacts of alcohol and take a look at the research to answer whether alcohol should be viewed as having a J-shaped curve of risk or zero alcohol being better than any amount. Referenced Material: WHO Statistics – Harmful Use of Alcohol Wood et al., 2018 – Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599,912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies Egolf et al., 1992 – The Roseto effect: a 50-year comparison of mortality rates “I Have a Question!”  …

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#372: Mike Israetel, PhD – Bodybuilding, Avoiding Suffering & Lessons for Life

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationMike Israetel, PhD Dr. Mike Israetel​ is the cofounder of Renaissance Periodization, holds a PhD in Sport Physiology from East Tennessee State University. Currently a professor in the strength and hypertrophy masters program at Lehman College, Mike has taught several courses at multiple universities, including Nutrition for Public Health, Advanced Sports Nutrition and Exercise, and Nutrition and Behavior. Originally from Moscow, Russia, he has worked as a consultant on sports nutrition to the U.S. Olympic Training Site in Johnson City, TN, and has been an invited speaker at numerous scientific and performance/health conferences worldwide. Mike …

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#371: Dietary Cholesterol – Are Eggs & Cholesterol-rich Foods a Cause for Concern?

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Listen on these appsPodcast TranscriptsToday’s Topic in Focus:  [00:51] In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the debate over the impact of dietary cholesterol on LDL-C levels and heart disease risk. Are eggs & cholesterol-rich foods a problem? Let’s dive into the research to find out! Referenced Material: Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020 – 2025 Hegsted et al., 1993 – Dietary fat and serum lipids: an evaluation of the experimental data Human Atherosclerosis and the Diet – Ancel Keys Keys et al., 1965 – Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet: II. The effect of cholesterol in the diet …

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#370: Jake Mey, PhD, RD – Dietetics, Evidence-based Practice & Translating Science into Advice

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationJacob Mey, PhD, RD Dr. Jake Mey is a registered dietitan and a human nutrition researcher. He is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center. His work focuses on diet, muscle & metabolism. Dr. Mey has a PhD in human nutrition and kinesology.In this episode we discuss: Are the dietary guidelines “wrong”? How can we translate findings from nutritional science into actionable, food-based advice? Barriers to being an evidence-based practitioner The right and wrong way to view dietetic training How increased diversity can improve the dietetic field Problems with making a RD …

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#369: Prof. Jason Gill – Population Cardiometabolic Disease Risk: Impact of Strength, Fitness & Activity

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationProf. Jason Gill, PhD Professor Jason Gill is a Professor of Cardiometabolic Health in the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences at the University of Glasgow. He leads an active multi-disciplinary research group investigating the effects of exercise and diet on the prevention and management of vascular and metabolic diseases from the molecular to the whole-body level. He is a past Chair of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) Division of Physical Activity for Health and a member of the development groups for the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines for the …

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#368: Shannon Beer – Intentional Eating, Flourishing Health & Behavioural Psychology

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationShannon Beer Shannon Beer is a nutritionist, working with people via online coaching and mentoring, with the goal of helping people improve their health through facilitating lasting behaviour change. In collaboration with Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro, she has developed a coaching framework that applies motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral coaching, and acceptance and commitment therapy-aligned processes in a client-centered alliance toward their own values-based goals. This ‘Comprehensive Coaching’ model facilitates long-term behavior change and flourishing health in clients. Before becoming a nutrition professional, Shannon graduated with a Law degree from King’s College London. Since then she has …

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#367: Gabrielle Fundaro, PhD – Mindful Eating, Facilitating Health Behaviour Change & Client-centred Coaching

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsGuest InformationGabrielle Fundaro, PhD Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro is a nutrition/health coach who focuses on facilitating behavior change, embodying a positive relationship with food, cultivating positive body image, and improving sport performance. Dr. Fundaro is a former Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Georgia Gwinnett College and holds a PhD in Human Nutrition and Exercise. She is currently a board member of both the Nutrition Coaching Global Mastermind (NCGM) and the Sports Nutrition Association (SNA). In collaboration with Shannon Beer, she has developed a coaching framework that applies motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioral coaching, and acceptance and commitment …

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#366: Listener Q&A

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Listen on these AppsPodcast TranscriptsIn this episode Danny and Alan answer some listener questions, covering a range of topics, including hunger cues, weight-neutral appraoches, body fat distribution, and breakfast and cognition, among others. The guys also discuss the most interesting thing they’ve learned this year and resources on critical thinking. Questions Answered: [08:40] What’s the most interesting thing you’ve learnt this year? [16:30] Is the cliche “hacks to survive the holiday period” a damaging narrative? [18:32] Is the notion that weight loss attempts typically produce more harm than benefit, evidence-based? [21:28] What’s your opinion on intuitive eating? Both the official …

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#365: David Robert Grimes, PhD – Conspiracy Theories & Bad Information: Why Are We Susceptible?

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Guest InformationDavid Robert Grimes, PhD Dr. David Robert Grimes is a physicist, cancer researcher and a science journalist. In addition to his cancer research, he has also published peer-reviewed work on conspiracy theories, meta-research and health modelling. Dr. Grimes is the author of the fantastic book The Irrational Ape: Why We Fall for Disinformation, Conspiracy Theory and Propaganda. And given his keen interest in advancing the public understanding of science, he contributes to several media outlets discussing science, politics and society. He appears frequently on news media to discuss and debate topics as diverse as vaccination to climate-change, and gives …